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Appendix 3 - The Greek Words Related to “Baptism”

Appendix 3

The Greek Words Related to “Baptism”

This appendix is included for those who wish to do a word study on baptism, baptize, and other cognate words in the New Testament. The data is arranged in a table so that the reader may quickly see the biblical usage and meaning of the Greek words. In the New Testament, there are six cognate words related to baptism:

  • The verb baptizō occurs 77x. It means to dip, immerse; to cleanse or purify by washing; to administer the rite of baptism, to baptize (Acts 22:16).
  • The noun baptisma occurs 19x. It means immersion; baptism, ordinance of baptism (Mt.3:7; Rom.6:4).
  • The noun baptistēs occurs 12x, and always refers to John the Baptist (or “John the Baptizer”). It means one who baptizes, a baptist (Mt.3:1).
  • The noun baptismos occurs 4x. It means an act of dipping or immersion: a baptism (Col.2:12; Mk.7:4; Heb.6:2).
  • The verb baptō occurs 4x. It means to dip (Jn.13:26).
  • The verb embaptō occurs twice. It means to dip in (Mk.14:20).

The number of occurrences are for the New Testament, and are derived from the NA28 Greek text. All definitions are taken from The New Analytical Greek Lexicon by W.J. Perschbacher.

The following table lists all the occurrences of the six cognates, starting with the one with the fewest entries. All verses are quoted in full from ESV. The English word in boldface corresponds to the Greek word under con­siderat­ion. An asterisk (*) next to a verse number indicates that the Greek word occurs twice in the verse.

 

embaptō (2 occurrences in 2 verses)

  1. Mt.26:23 He answered, “He who has dipped his hand in the dish with me will betray me.
  1. Mk.14:20 He said to them, “It is one of the twelve, one who is dipping bread into the dish with me.

baptō (4 occurrences in 3 verses)

  1. Lk.16:24 And he called out, ‘Father Abraham, have mercy on me, and send Lazarus to dip the end of his finger in water and cool my tongue, for I am in anguish in this flame.’
  1. Jn.13:26* Jesus answered, “It is he to whom I will give this morsel of bread when I have dipped it.” So when he had dipped the morsel, he gave it to Judas, the son of Simon Iscariot.
  1. Rev.19:13 He is clothed in a robe dipped in blood, and the name by which he is called is The Word of God.

baptimos (4 occurrences in 4 verses)

  1. Mk.7:4 and when they come from the marketplace, they do not eat unless they wash. And there are many other traditions that they observe, such as the washing of cups and pots and copper vessels and dining couches.)
  1. Col.2:12 having been buried with him in baptism, in which you were also raised with him through faith in the powerful working of God, who raised him from the dead.
  1. Heb.6:2 and of instruction about washings, the laying on of hands, the resurrection of the dead, and eternal judgment.
  1. Heb.9:10 but deal only with food and drink and various washings, regulations for the body imposed until the time of reformation.

baptistēs (12 occurrences in 12 verses)

  1. Mt.3:1 In those days John the Baptist came preaching in the wilderness of Judea,
  1. Mt.11:11 Truly, I say to you, among those born of women there has arisen no one greater than John the Baptist. Yet the one who is least in the kingdom of heaven is greater than he.
  1. Mt.11:12 From the days of John the Baptist until now the kingdom of heaven has suffered violence, and the violent take it by force.
  1. Mt.14:2 and he said to his servants, “This is John the Baptist. He has been raised from the dead; that is why these miraculous powers are at work in him.”
  1. Mt.14:8 Prompted by her mother, she said, “Give me the head of John the Baptist here on a platter.”
  1. Mt.16:14 And they said, “Some say John the Baptist, others say Elijah, and others Jeremiah or one of the prophets.”
  1. Mt.17:13 Then the disciples understood that he was speaking to them of John the Baptist.
  1. Mk.6:25 And she came in immediately with haste to the king and asked, saying, “I want you to give me at once the head of John the Baptist on a platter.”
  1. Mk.8:28 And they told him, “John the Baptist; and others say, Elijah; and others, one of the prophets.”
  1. Lk.7:20 And when the men had come to him, they said, “John the Baptist has sent us to you, saying, ‘Are you the one who is to come, or shall we look for another?’”
  1. Lk.7:33 For John the Baptist has come eating no bread and drinking no wine, and you say, ‘He has a demon.’
  1. Lk.9:19 And they answered, “John the Baptist. But others say, Elijah, and others, that one of the prophets of old has risen.”

baptisma (19 occurrences in 19 verses)

  1. Mt.3:7 But when he saw many of the Pharisees and Sadducees coming to his baptism, he said to them, “You brood of vipers! Who warned you to flee from the wrath to come?
  1. Mt.21:25 The baptism of John, from where did it come? From heaven or from man?” And they discussed it among themselves, saying, “If we say, ‘From heaven,’ he will say to us, ‘Why then did you not believe him?’
  1. Mk.1:4 John appeared, baptizing in the wilderness and proclaiming a baptism of repentance for the forgiveness of sins.
  1. Mk.10:38 Jesus said to them, “You do not know what you are asking. Are you able to drink the cup that I drink, or to be baptized with the baptism with which I am baptized?”
  1. Mk.10:39 And they said to him, “We are able.” And Jesus said to them, “The cup that I drink you will drink, and with the baptism with which I am baptized, you will be baptized,
  1. Mk.11:30 Was the baptism of John from heaven or from man? Answer me.”
  1. Lk.3:3 And he went into all the region around the Jordan, proclaiming a baptism of repentance for the forgiveness of sins.
  1. Lk.7:29 (When all the people heard this, and the tax collectors too, they declared God just, having been baptized with the baptism of John,
  1. Lk.12:50 I have a baptism to be baptized with, and how great is my distress until it is accomplished!
  1. Lk.20:4 was the baptism of John from heaven or from man?”
  1. Acts 1:22 beginning from the baptism of John until the day when he was taken up from us—one of these men must become with us a witness to his resurrection.”
  1. Acts 10:37 you yourselves know what happened throughout all Judea, beginning from Galilee after the baptism that John proclaimed:
  1. Acts 13:24 Before his coming, John had proclaimed a baptism of repentance to all the people of Israel.
  1. Acts 18:25 He had been instructed in the way of the Lord. And being fervent in spirit, he spoke and taught accurately the things concerning Jesus, though he knew only the baptism of John.
  1. Acts 19:3 And he said, “Into what then were you baptized?” They said, “Into John’s baptism.”
  1. Acts 19:4 And Paul said, “John baptized with the baptism of repentance, telling the people to believe in the one who was to come after him, that is, Jesus.”
  1. Rom.6:4 We were buried therefore with him by baptism into death, in order that, just as Christ was raised from the dead by the glory of the Father, we too might walk in newness of life.
  1. Eph.4:5 one Lord, one faith, one baptism,
  1. 1Pet.3:21 Baptism, which corresponds to this, now saves you, not as a removal of dirt from the body but as an appeal to God for a good conscience, through the resurrection of Jesus Christ,

baptizō (77 occurrences in 64 verses)

  1. Mt.3:6 they were baptized by him in the river Jordan, confessing their sins.
  1. Mt.3:11* “I baptize you with water for repentance, but he who is coming after me is mightier than I, whose sandals I am not worthy to carry. He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit and fire.
  1. Mt.3:13 Then Jesus came from Galilee to the Jordan to John, to be baptized by him.
  1. Mt.3:14 John would have prevented him, saying, “I need to be baptized by you, and do you come to me?”
  1. Mt.3:16 And when Jesus was baptized, immediately he went up from the water, and behold, the heavens were opened to him, and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove and coming to rest on him;
  1. Mt.28:19 Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit,
  1. Mk.1:4 John appeared, baptizing in the wilderness and proclaiming a baptism of repentance for the forgiveness of sins.
  1. Mk.1:5 And all the country of Judea and all Jerusalem were going out to him and were being baptized by him in the river Jordan, confessing their sins.
  1. Mk.1:8* I have baptized you with water, but he will baptize you with the Holy Spirit.”
  1. Mk.1:9 In those days Jesus came from Nazareth of Galilee and was baptized by John in the Jordan.
  1. Mk.6:14 King Herod heard of it, for Jesus’ name had become known. Some said, “John the Baptist has been raised from the dead. That is why these miraculous powers are at work in him.”
  1. Mk.6:24 And she went out and said to her mother, “For what should I ask?” And she said, “The head of John the Baptist.”
  1. Mk.7:4 and when they come from the marketplace, they do not eat unless they wash. And there are many other traditions that they observe, such as the washing of cups and pots and copper vessels and dining couches.)
  1. Mk.10:38* Jesus said to them, “You do not know what you are asking. Are you able to drink the cup that I drink, or to be baptized with the baptism with which I am baptized?”
  1. Mk.10:39* And they said to him, “We are able.” And Jesus said to them, “The cup that I drink you will drink, and with the baptism with which I am baptized, you will be baptized,
  1. Mk.16:16 Whoever believes and is baptized will be saved, but whoever does not believe will be condemned.
  1. Lk.3:7 He said therefore to the crowds that came out to be baptized by him, “You brood of vipers! Who warned you to flee from the wrath to come?
  1. Lk.3:12 Tax collectors also came to be baptized and said to him, “Teacher, what shall we do?”
  1. Lk.3:16* John answered them all, saying, “I baptize you with water, but he who is mightier than I is coming, the strap of whose sandals I am not worthy to untie. He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit and fire.
  1. Lk.3:21* Now when all the people were baptized, and when Jesus also had been baptized and was praying, the heavens were opened,
  1. Lk.7:29 (When all the people heard this, and the tax collectors too, they declared God just, having been baptized with the baptism of John,
  1. Lk.7:30 but the Pharisees and the lawyers rejected the purpose of God for themselves, not having been baptized by him.)
  1. Lk.11:38 The Pharisee was astonished to see that he did not first wash before dinner.
  1. Lk.12:50 I have a baptism to be baptized with, and how great is my distress until it is accomplished!
  1. Jn.1:25 They asked him, “Then why are you baptizing, if you are neither the Christ, nor Elijah, nor the Prophet?”
  1. Jn.1:26 John answered them, “I baptize with water, but among you stands one you do not know,
  1. Jn.1:28 These things took place in Bethany across the Jordan, where John was baptizing.
  1. Jn.1:31 I myself did not know him, but for this purpose I came baptizing with water, that he might be revealed to Israel.”
  1. Jn.1:33* I myself did not know him, but he who sent me to baptize with water said to me, ‘He on whom you see the Spirit descend and remain, this is he who baptizes with the Holy Spirit.’
  1. Jn.3:22 After this Jesus and his disciples went into the Judean countryside, and he remained there with them and was baptizing.
  1. Jn.3:23* John also was baptizing at Aenon near Salim, because water was plentiful there, and people were coming and being baptized
  1. Jn.3:26 And they came to John and said to him, “Rabbi, he who was with you across the Jordan, to whom you bore witness—look, he is baptizing, and all are going to him.”
  1. Jn.4:1 Now when Jesus learned that the Pharisees had heard that Jesus was making and baptizing more disciples than John
  1. Jn.4:2 (although Jesus himself did not baptize, but only his disciples),
  1. Jn.10:40 He went away again across the Jordan to the place where John had been baptizing at first, and there he remained.
  1. Acts 1:5* for John baptized with water, but you will be baptized with the Holy Spirit not many days from now.”
  1. Acts 2:38 And Peter said to them, “Repent and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins, and you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit.
  1. Acts 2:41 So those who received his word were baptized, and there were added that day about three thousand souls.
  1. Acts 8:12 But when they believed Philip as he preached good news about the kingdom of God and the name of Jesus Christ, they were baptized, both men and women.
  1. Acts 8:13 Even Simon himself believed, and after being baptized he continued with Philip. And seeing signs and great miracles performed, he was amazed.
  1. Acts 8:16 for he had not yet fallen on any of them, but they had only been baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus.
  1. Acts 8:36 And as they were going along the road they came to some water, and the eunuch said, “See, here is water! What prevents me from being baptized?”
  1. Acts 8:38 And he commanded the chariot to stop, and they both went down into the water, Philip and the eunuch, and he baptized him.
  1. Acts 9:18 And immediately something like scales fell from his eyes, and he regained his sight. Then he rose and was baptized;
  1. Acts 10:47 “Can anyone withhold water for baptizing these people, who have received the Holy Spirit just as we have?”
  1. Acts 10:48 And he commanded them to be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ. Then they asked him to remain for some days.
  1. Acts 11:16* And I remembered the word of the Lord, how he said, ‘John baptized with water, but you will be baptized with the Holy Spirit.’
  1. Acts 16:15 And after she was baptized, and her household as well, she urged us, saying, “If you have judged me to be faithful to the Lord, come to my house and stay.” And she prevailed upon us.
  1. Acts 16:33 And he took them the same hour of the night and washed their wounds; and he was baptized at once, he and all his family.
  1. Acts 18:8 Crispus, the ruler of the synagogue, believed in the Lord, together with his entire household. And many of the Corinthians hearing Paul believed and were baptized.
  1. Acts 19:3 And he said, “Into what then were you baptized?” They said, “Into John’s baptism.”
  1. Acts 19:4 Paul said, “John baptized with the baptism of repentance, telling the people to believe in the one who was to come after him, that is, Jesus.”
  1. Acts 19:5 On hearing this, they were baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus.
  1. Acts 22:16 And now why do you wait? Rise and be baptized and wash away your sins, calling on his name.’
  1. Rom.6:3* Do you not know that all of us who have been baptized into Christ Jesus were baptized into his death?
  1. 1Cor.1:13 Is Christ divided? Was Paul crucified for you? Or were you baptized in the name of Paul?
  1. 1Cor.1:14 I thank God that I baptized none of you except Crispus and Gaius,
  1. 1Cor.1:15 so that no one may say that you were baptized in my name.
  1. 1Cor.1:16* (I did baptize also the household of Stephanas. Beyond that, I do not know whether I baptized anyone else.)
  1. 1Cor.1:17 For Christ did not send me to baptize but to preach the gospel, and not with words of eloquent wisdom, lest the cross of Christ be emptied of its power.
  1. 1Cor.10:2 and all were baptized into Moses in the cloud and in the sea,
  1. 1Cor.12:13 For in one Spirit we were all baptized into one body—Jews or Greeks, slaves or free—and all were made to drink of one Spirit.
  1. 1Cor.15:29* Otherwise, what do people mean by being baptized on behalf of the dead? If the dead are not raised at all, why are people baptized on their behalf?
  1. Gal.3:27 For as many of you as were baptized into Christ have put on Christ.

 

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